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Combining NMR spectroscopy and organic synthesis : from small building blocks to large biomolecules

Gsellinger, Heiko. Combining NMR spectroscopy and organic synthesis : from small building blocks to large biomolecules. 2014, PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_11071

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Abstract

Detailed knowledge of the structure of bio molecules with atomic resolution is essential for the understanding of their function. Moreover the identification and quantification of their dynamic processes are important, as they are the origin of molecular functionalities. Different spectroscopic methods like X-ray crystallography (limited to structure elucidation, no dynamics), mass spectroscopy, electron spin resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can deliver this detailed structural information. Especially NMR spectroscopy has found its application in the identification of dynamic processes. This thesis was focused on the characterization of dynamic processes, the structure elucidation of natural products available in nanograms and the synthesis of lanthanide chelating tags for the study of protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions in solution.
The thesis is divided into three chapters addressing a specific task of the mentioned topic.
A: The influences of different donors and linkers on lanthanide chelating tags were investigated. A 4S-Tetramethylcyclen was used as enantiomerically pure core molecule. The side chains were based on enantiopure lactic acid derivatives. The carboxylic acids of lactic acid were transformed into different functional groups like thiols, nitrogens, and carbonyl. These different donor groups are expected to change the magnetic susceptibility tensor of the lanthanide cation in complex with the synthesized tags. Special protection protocols for the introduction of heteroatoms are presented. On this basis also two new linkers were introduced. These linkers bind in a selective way to cysteins on a protein surface as thioethers. The alpha-bromoketones are very selective for the coupling to cysteins, nevertheless they have a tendency to hydrolyse under Lewis acidic conditions. Vinylsulfones require harsher tagging conditions but they are much more stable against hydrolysis. All new tags were attached to proteins and tested as PCS reagents in protein NMR spectroscopy.
B: The effects of para-substituents on the rotation barrier of 2,2«-propyl and 2,2«-butyl-bridged biphenyls were studied by dynamic NMR spectroscopy and dynamic HPLC measurements. Gibbs free activation energies of the rotation about the central biphenyl bond were estimated by variable temperature 1H-NMR experiments for the propyl bridged biphenyl. The resulting data were correlated to Hammett-parameters ?P as a measure of electron donor and acceptor strength. It was demonstrated that the electronic effects influence the activation barrier significantly, whereas sterics had only minor influence. Rate constants were calculated from line shape analysis and analysed by Eyring plots to calculate the entropic and enthalpic contributions. Thermodynamic data for the butyl-bridged biphenyls were directly obtained from dynamic HPLC chromatograms. DFT calculations delivered different transition states for the two series of biphenyls. The calculation of the activation parameters showed a similar trend and therefore the model is validated. The differences in the enthalpic and entropic contributions between HPLC, NMR and DFT calculations are method dependent, which was proven by changes of the solvent in NMR experiments that led to alteration of these contributions.
C: The identification and total synthesis of a novel methylated lipid antigen (mLPA) was performed. The presented mLPA shows potent inhibition properties against human leukaemia. A combination of extraction protocols, activation essays and HPLC-MS measurements were used to identify the different antigen molecules from cell extracts. Three different candidates were identified. MS-MS experiments delivered structural insights, which were further confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and allowed the characterization of two of these structures. Total syntheses of the identified structures were performed in 6 linear steps. The high biological activity of the synthesized structures corroborated the identity of the active molecule.
Advisors:Pfaltz, Andreas
Committee Members:Häussinger, Daniel and Housecroft, Catherine E.
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Chemie > Chemie > Synthetische organische Chemie (Pfaltz)
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis no:11071
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Number of Pages:238 S.
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:30 Jun 2016 10:56
Deposited On:29 Dec 2014 15:20

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