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Light element production in the big bang and the synthesis of heavy elements in 3D MHD jets from core-collapse supernovae

Winteler, Christian. Light element production in the big bang and the synthesis of heavy elements in 3D MHD jets from core-collapse supernovae. 2013, PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_10609

Abstract

In this dissertation we present the main features of a new nuclear reaction network evolution code. This new code allows nucleosynthesis calculations for large numbers of nuclides. The main results in this dissertation are all obtained using this new code.
The strength of standard big bang nucleosynthesis is, that all primordial abundances are determined by only one free parameter, the baryon-to-photon ratio η. We perform self consistent nucleosynthesis calculations for the latest WMAP value η = (6.16±0.15)×10^−10 . We predict primordial light element abundances: D/H = (2.84 ± 0.23)×10^−5, 3He/H = (1.07 ± 0.09)×10^−5, Yp = 0.2490±0.0005 and 7Li/H = (4.57 ± 0.55)×10^−10, in agreement with current observations and other predictions. We investigate the influence of the main production rate on the 6 Li abundance, but find no significant increase of the predicted value, which is known to be orders of magnitude lower than the observed.
The r-process is responsible for the formation of about half of the elements heavier than iron in our solar system. This neutron capture process requires explosive environments with large neutron densities. The exact astrophysical site where the r-process occurs has not yet been identified. We explore jets from magnetorotational core collapse supernovae (MHD jets) as possible r-process site. In a parametric study, assuming adiabatic expansion, we find good agreement with solar system abundances for a superposition of components with different electron fraction (Ye ), ranging from Ye = 0.1 to Ye = 0.3. Fission is found to be important only for Ye ≤ 0.17.
The first postprocessing calculations with data from 3D MHD core collapse supernova simulations are performed for two different simulations. Calculations are based on two different methods to extract data from the simulation: tracer particles and a two dimensional, mass weighted histogram. Both results yield almost identical results. We find that both simulations can reproduce the global solar r-process abundance pattern. The ejected mass is found to be in agreement with galactic chemical evolution for a rare event rate of one MHD jet every hundredth to thousandth supernova.
Advisors:Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl
Committee Members:Rauscher, Thomas and Kratz, Karl-Ludwig
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Physik > Physik > Theoretische Physik Astrophysik (Thielemann)
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis no:10609
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Number of Pages:106 S.
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:30 Jun 2016 10:54
Deposited On:28 Nov 2013 09:39

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