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Spinor condensates in optical superlattices

Wagner, Andreas. Spinor condensates in optical superlattices. 2012, PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_10215

Abstract

In this thesis we study various aspects of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates in optical superlattices using a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian that takes spin effects into account. We decouple the unit cells of the superlattice via a mean-field approach and take into account the dynamics within the unit cell exactly. In this way we derive the ground-state phase diagram of spinor bosons in superlattices. The system supports Mott-insulating as well as superfluid phases. The transitions between these phases are second-order for spinless bosons and second- or first-order for spin-1 bosons. Antiferromagnetic interactions energetically penalize high-spin configurations and elongate all Mott lobes, especially the ones corresponding to an even atom number on each lattice site. We find that the quadratic Zeeman effect lifts the degeneracy between different polar superfluid phases leading to additional metastable phases and first-order phase transitions. A change of magnetic fields can drive quantum phase transitions in the same way as a change in the tunneling amplitude does. Furthermore we study the physics of spin-1 atoms in superlattices deep in the Mott insulating phase when the superlattice decomposes into isolated double-well potentials. Assuming that a small number of spin-1 bosons is loaded in an optical double-well potential, we study single-particle tunneling that occurs when one lattice site is ramped up relative to a neighboring site. Spin-dependent effects modify the tunneling events in a qualitative and quantitative way. Depending on the asymmetry of the double well different types of magnetic order occur, making the system of spin-1 bosons in an optical superlattice a model for mesoscopic magnetism with an unprecedented control of the parameters. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous magnetic fields are applied and the effects of the linear and the quadratic Zeeman shifts are examined. We generalize the concept of bosonic staircases to connected double-well potentials. We show that an energy offset between the two sites of the unit cell in an extended superlattice induces a staircase of single-atom resonances in
the same way as in isolated double well. We also examine single-atom resonances in the superfluid regime and find clear fingerprints of them in the superfluid density. We also investigate the bipartite entanglement between the sites and construct states of maximal entanglement. The entanglement in our system is due to both orbital and spin degrees of freedom. We calculate the contribution of orbital and
spin entanglement and show that the sum of these two terms gives a lower bound for the total entanglement.
Advisors:Bruder, Christoph
Committee Members:Jaksch, Dieter
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Physik > Physik > Theoretische Physik (Bruder)
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis no:10215
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Number of Pages:164 S.
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:30 Jun 2016 10:51
Deposited On:14 Jan 2013 15:48

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