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Spin susceptibility of two-dimensional electron systems

Żak, Robert Andrzej. Spin susceptibility of two-dimensional electron systems. 2012, PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_10175

Abstract

A quantum computer, in contrast to traditional computers based on transistors, is a device that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform computation. One of possible realizations is a so-called spin-qubit quantum computer which uses the intrinsic spin degree of freedom of an electron confined to a quantum dot as a qubit (a unit of quantum information that can be in a linear superposition of the basis states).
Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots, e.g., in GaAs, are inevitably coupled via hyperfine interaction to the surrounding environment of nuclear spins. This coupling results in decoherence, which is the process leading to the loss of information stored in a qubit. Spontaneous polarization of nuclear spins should suppress decoherence in single-electron spin qubits and ultimately facilitate quantum computing in these systems.
The main focus of this thesis is to study nonanalytic properties of electron spin susceptibility, which was shown to effectively describe the coupling strength between nuclear spins embedded in a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG), and give detailed insights into the issue of spontaneous polarization of nuclear spins.
In the first part we consider the effect of rescattering of pairs of quasiparticles in the Cooper channel resulting in the strong renormalization of second-order corrections to the spin susceptibility in a 2DEG. We use the Fourier expansion of the scattering potential in the vicinity of the Fermi surface to find that each harmonic becomes renormalized independently. Since some of those harmonics are negative, the first derivative of the spin susceptibility is bound to be negative at small momenta, in contrast to the lowest order perturbation theory result, which predicts a positive slope. We present in detail an effective method to calculate diagrammatically corrections to the spin susceptibility to infinite order.
The second part deals with the effect of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) on the nonanalytic behavior of the spin susceptibility for a two-dimensional electron liquid. A long-range interaction via virtual particle-hole pairs between Fermi-liquid quasiparticles leads to the nonanalytic behavior of the spin susceptibility as a function of the temperature, magnetic field, and wavenumber . Although the SOI breaks the SU(2) symmetry, it does not eliminate nonanalyticity but rather makes it anisotropic: while the linear scaling of the out-of-plane spin susceptibility with temperature and the magnetic field saturates at the energy scale set by the SOI, that of the in-plane spin susceptibility continues through this energy scale, until renormalization of the electron-electron interaction in the Cooper channel becomes important. We show that the Renormalization Group flow in the Cooper channel has a non-trivial fixed point, and study the consequences of this fixed point for the nonanalytic behavior of the spin susceptibility.
In the third part we analyze the ordered state of nuclear spins embedded in an interacting 2DEG with Rashba SOI. Stability of the ferromagnetic nuclear-spin phase is governed by nonanalytic dependences of the electron spin susceptibility tensor on the momentum and on the SOI coupling constant. The uniform (zero-momentum) spin susceptibility is anisotropic (with the out-of-plane component being larger than the in-plane one by a term proportional to the SOI coupling to second order in electron-electron interaction). For momenta larger than the SOI coupling, corrections to the leading, linear-in-SOI-coupling term scale linearly with momentum for the in-plane component and are absent for the out-of plane component of the spin susceptibility. This anisotropy has important consequences for the ferromagnetic nuclear-spin phase: (i) the ordered state, if achieved, is of an Ising type and (ii) the spin-wave dispersion is gapped at the vanishing momentum. To second order in electron-electron interaction, the dispersion is a decreasing function of the momentum, and the anisotropy is not sufficient to stabilize long-range order. However, we show that renormalization in the Cooper channel for momenta much larger than the SOI coupling is capable of reversing the sign of the momentum-dependence of the in-plane spin susceptibility and thus stabilizing the ordered state, if the system is sufficiently close to (but not necessarily in the immediate vicinity of) the Kohn-Luttinger instability.
Advisors:Loss, Daniel
Committee Members:Maslov, Dmitrii
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Physik > Physik > Theoretische Physik Mesoscopics (Loss)
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis no:10175
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Number of Pages:149 Bl.
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:30 Jun 2016 10:51
Deposited On:26 Nov 2012 15:53

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