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Spin decoherence and manipulation in quantum dots : the role of the spin-orbit interaction

Borhani, Massoud. Spin decoherence and manipulation in quantum dots : the role of the spin-orbit interaction. 2010, PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science.

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Official URL: http://edoc.unibas.ch/diss/DissB_9224

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Abstract

Solid state based quantum information processing is focused on physical implementation of all necessary elements of quantum computation and quantum information in solid state systems, mainly due to their scalability compared to e.g. optical systems. Among many proposals to realize these types of devices, such as quantum dots as charge qubits or Josephson junction circuits, we study here one of the most promising candidates, i.e., the spin of an electron confined to a quantum dot as a qubit. Experimentally, it has been shown that the relaxation rate of this two level system can be pushed above few seconds in low magnetic fields. Moreover, using spin echo techniques,
the spin dephasing time can be maximized up to milliseconds with the current technology. This long spin decay time is one of the main reasons that make this system desirable for quantum computation and quantum information purposes.
We reexamined the recent measurement based proposal called one-way quantum computation which exploits entanglement and local measurements as tools to perform quantum computation on N qubits. Although it was suggested in the original work to entangle the qubits via the nearest neighbor Ising interaction, we investigated how one can generate the so-called cluster states with the Heisenberg interaction. We extended our method to include more general forms of Heisenberg interaction such as asymmetric coupling of adjacent qubits. These forms of couplings, rather than Ising interaction, are more encountered in solid state devices, and therefore make it possible to perform one-way quantum computation with electron spins in quantum dots coupled via exchange interaction to their adjacent spins.
Chapters II, III, and IV of my thesis are devoted to the study of the spin-orbit interaction in heterostructure quantum dots and its effect on the spin dynamics. We observed that one can actually use spin-orbit interaction to manipulate the spin state of an electron on time scales much smaller than the spin dephasing time. Specifically, in chapter II, we studied the effect of a nearby functioning quantum point contact (QPC) on the relaxation of the electron spin and show that the charge fluctuations in QPC lead to spin relaxation of the confined electron in the presence of spin-orbit interactiom and an applied magnetic field. We also addressed the relation of this rate to the microscopic parameters of the system and found some geometrical dependence of the spin relaxation time on the orientation of the QPC on the substrate. Moreover, we showed in chapters III and IV that the spin-orbit interaction can play a positive role, in order to rotate the spin around the Bloch sphere. We considered different mechanisms, particularly, Electron Dipole Spin Resonance (EDSR) and holonomic unitary gates in quantum dots. We verified that these mechanisms of spin manipulation can be realized in solid state systems with the state of the art semiconductor technologies.
Chapter V of the thesis covers a slightly different topic and focuses on the role of the Coulomb interaction in electronic transport. There, we reviewed the non-analytic corrections to the Fermi liquid behavior and their consequences on the momentum occupation number of the electrons in a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). As an example, we calculated the tunneling rate from an interacting electron reservoir onto a quantum dot and compared our result to the corresponding case for electron tunneling between bilayer 2DEGs. Moreover, within RPA approximation, we found that the electron-plasmon coupling leads to a quadratic frequency dependence of the electron self-energy at low frequencies at the Fermi surface. This correction suppresses the same order corrections due to the particle-hole bubble.
Advisors:Loss, Daniel
Committee Members:Lehmann, Jörg
Faculties and Departments:05 Faculty of Science > Departement Physik > Physik > Theoretische Physik Mesoscopics (Loss)
Item Type:Thesis
Thesis no:9224
Bibsysno:Link to catalogue
Number of Pages:95 S.
Language:English
Identification Number:
Last Modified:30 Jun 2016 10:41
Deposited On:17 Nov 2010 14:21

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